Links - (Table of Contents)
Software (Indespensible)
Free Literature and ebooks
Search Engines
C++ Compilers                           
C++ Refreshers & Tutorials
Java Interpreters
Java Refreshers & Tutorials  
JavaScript Tutorials & Docs
Operating Systems (Windows, DOS, Linux, Unix)
Programming IDEs/Compilers
Programming Editors
Web-Page Editors
Software Sites

Office Suites
Graphics Software
Video & media_players(capture/edit)
Free Email and Free Web Space
Other CS & Math Sites

Software (Indespensible General Variety)                              ("Best" Secure FTP Client for Windows)                                     ("Best" Compact Graphical Viewer/Editor)                               ("Best" batch file renamer ("1-for-all"   :)              Best WYSIWYG clean HTML 5 & CSS3 editor.  It replaces Kompozer
(below) which is now dated.  For HTML5 web pages and JavaScript game development, fly Blue Griffon.       (Clean HTML editor - avoids "mindless" automated-ML) (portable zip install)                                        ("Best" file compressor (use with several others))     (putty.exe__SSH Secure telnet)       (portable putty.exe to go         flash-drive it)                   Xming - free Xwindows for your PC.       
  To download Xming, to reduce load, check any of the alternate sites by Googling:     xming download       __   freedom in the Windows world with GNU

Reminder: Join the MS Alliance (now  called DreamSpark) at:
 - free to students of CS).

Consider Googling for:
   1) Microsoft Word Viewer (fast reader),
   2) "Adobe Acrobat Reader", "Foxit Reader" (faster PDF reading),
   3) djvu viewer ("extreme-compression"; irfanview has a nice viewer addon for it),
   4) Servant Salamander (old free one is fine) or FreeCommander (has portable USB/CD version)
       or go to:   for NC clones in Windows & Linux   
       or    for the general categories.

Web Browsers / clients:

For web browsers/clients,  as of  9/20/09, Lunascape5 has surpassed even Firefox and Opera,
offering dynamically selectable renderers (1 of 3) and other exhilirating powers.  Multiple web browsers:
     i. offer choice in configurations/problem-resolution (i.e. strengths vary - some are good for
        Javascript support/speed, others good for editing, previewing, ...),
    ii. provide more reliability and choice,
   iii. can be used for domain-specific concurrent browsing & organized long-term multitasking inquiries.
So definitely get all the below, install them, and join the unfettered exploration of the unlimited domains
of knowledge (pun unintended :) in cyberspace:
-    Lunascape5 is sheer power, control, and versatility. Excellent, elegant, and expertly programmed   
-    Firefox  is a reliable, faithful companion, useful for all mission critical activities. Irresistible and popular. 
-    Opera provides speed, sleek style, great session management, and a compact footprint.       
-    Internet Explorer 8 is functional only on Windows XP, Vista, 7, and later.  Consider the upgrade. 
-    Flock is interestingly socially aggregate-oriented but memory-consuming.  For social networking.
-    SeaMonkey is great with Mozilla Composer but downloads are irritatingly sluggish
-    Mozilla retired sadly. It is functional but not secure. Use academically/experiment, not  for productivity.
-    Netscape is still tried & true, with Composer still operational but recently was discontinued.
-    Mosaic's sadly vanishing (reminiscent of Multics' fate).
-    Hidden Web Browser in Windows (for appropriate emergencies):  
     Load Task-Manager > Help > Help-Topics > right-click on north-west-corner of the title-bar and on
     the menu choose "Jump to URL". In the resultant dialog-box, type the URL (begins with:    http://     ).
     Behold a functional embedded web browser, useful in precluded alternatives scenarios (IE freeze-up).
-   Text-mode browsers have been rendered obsolete by (1) broadband and (2) Flash, PDF, Javascript,
    and other non-HTML and interpreted web environments.  Goodbye Lynx.        
-   For a sizable list (several missing) and comparative attributes:                 

Free Literature and ebooks:     
                         Limitless literature and knowledge, all free!  Become a volunteer in the massive
                         effort to document human wisdom through the ages.  Become a scribe or an editor.        
                         Vast collections of free ebooks in many Computer Science subdisciplines.
                         Many are out-of-print textbooks, perfectly current and quite beneficial.      Splendid resource!   Also, a good source of test questions :)    
                         Many great classics in Computer Science, a treasure trove.   Excellent archive of books, even the complete works of Daudet!
                                                                  Once in this site, leaving is not possible; it's like living in a library.                  French Literature         

Dictionaries:                 (the joy of lexicon and philology)           Impressively comprehensive & fast - my favorite                   A meta-dictionary (like metasearch engines but for lexical inquiry)                   Fine. Over 1.7 million words, 500K from classic Century Dictionary.      The 10 volume, 500K-entry classic Century Dictionary.
                                                                           Use the "Find Entry" (JPG or Djvu viewing is 'leisurely').                                        Etymologies.     W.H.Fowler's "King's English", Roget's Thesaurus, and W.Strunk
                                                  Also, Bartlett's "Familiar Quotations", the LOC's "Respectfully Quoted",
                                                  And the CIA's  "The World Factbook, 2008".   

Encyclopedias:           Wikipedia, a most dynamic and vibrant Encyclopedia.   
                                                                       No topic is beyond, below, or outside its' scope.      Recursion in action - many encyclopedias.                    Scholarly paragon among general English encyclopedias.      Profound work of comprehensive erudition, illuminating an
    an era unmarred by modern warfare and corruption.   Freely downloadable and ready to read;
    compare articles with those in new Britannica DVD OR just read it for the sheer splendor and enrichment.               Columbia Encyclopedia and more.              

The Information Please Almanac                       A portal to educationally-supportive online references.              Encyclopedia of Mathematics (Magnificent, irresistible, visit & stay here)       MathWorld is a fine, frequently-used Math reference & resource site 
                                                     As a Corrolary, visit:, too.           On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences 
               Sloane's book was fun yet useful.  This site is even more so; explore sequences and combinatorics.   
               Related links at:      Encyclopedia Astronautica            Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (authoritative online reference)           Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (classic 4 volume set is now online)

Time:        Eastern Standard Time (good enough for George Reeves :)  
,       Real-time EDT Time-Zone for NJ.                  Another dynamic display model.

Calendar:                   Simple 1-page calendar to help in scheduling

Search Engines:, searching the modern way (well at least it is a verb in the dictionary)    
AltaVista: Main Page
,  searching the old way  (nostalgic cluster of Super-VAXes),  an older friend (when the web was young and SUN shined supreme)    
For search engines, Google superseded AltaVista as my favorite, which supplanted Lycos, the great titan of yore. 

Other search engines include:         I always liked Jeeves.    P.G. Wodehouse created Percy Jeeves.  
                                       Miss Jeeves we do; we're mischievous.           metasearch          For other search engines, consult here.

C++:  Free Compilers for Windows

Bloodshed Dev-C++ C++ Compiler & IDE     -   superb Mingw-based GCC           - get the devpaks for Dev-C++  (OpenGL, Allegro, audio...)
devcpp30.zip___Dev-C++: Early-version for Windows 95/98  C/C++ IDE and compiler      Eclipse is a top-notch IDE for C++, Java, JavaScript, PHP, Mobile...                     MINGW - The Minimalist GNU (Windows version)          OpenWatcom C/C++ compiler for Win32, Win16, & DOS w ext                           (Free Turbo C++ 2006 Explorer)
Borland C++ Compiler version 5.5 Free Download _for_Windows
                            Cygwin Free GNU_C++_compiler\IDE_for_Windows
                Digital Mars C++
djgpp___GNU_C++_compiler/IDE_for_not just Windows but even good ole DOS_w/extender 
GNU CC - The Source, The Origin
       Apple's C++ for the Macintosh & OS X                 lcc, A Retargetable Compiler for ANSI C                              lcc for Win32                         Pelles C  (based on lcc)

C++:   Refresher and Tutorial Sites    
    (Great for quick code snippets, tutorials, and refreshers on how to write C++ code, esp. OOP)   (Excellent free C++ textbook, great code snippets (how to), PPTs...)     (Fast concise reference, a page on every function, well organized)
        (Easy access, fast ref.;  check their Documentation, Reference, and 
                                                          Source code sections.   Source code sections has nice snippets.)       (Hubbard's Schaums C++ DS source)        (Hubbard's Schaums C++ source)    (Hubbard's Schaums Intro C++ source)          (Fine free C++ textbook)  
             (more tutorial examples)
            (Massive, bloggy; try the more focused:  


Java:   Free Interpreters/Compilers/IDE's for Windows

SUN ONE Studio/Forte for Java IDE, requires jdk below (Comm. Ed.)

SUN's JDK (download SDK, JRE, Netbeans,  & documentation)      Eclipse is a top-notch IDE for Java, C++, JavaScript, PHP, Mobile...

Java:   Refresher and Tutorial Sites
             Free Java resources, tutorials...             Free Java books (8 of them)    (Hubbard's Schaums Java source code)      (Hubbard's PH Java DS source code)    (Hubbard's Schaums Java DS source code)      (many more Java links)                           (Scroll to the "Trails Covering the Basics")        

JavaScript:   Refresher and Tutorial Sites  
         The Original JavaScript Language Ref. & User Guide, from the creators of JavaScript (i.e. Netscape).   
            Also refer to:               
              (Many tutorial lesson sets & sample scripts)                   (Tutorials, references, & sample scripts)     JavaScript Survival Guide                     A JavaScript Lint program (downloadable and online versions)       
            Free JavaScript scripts to modify and incorporate.  There are tutorials and even a free JS-editor.           Primers in ASP, JavaScript, Perl, HTML...         JavaScript FAQ's        More JavaScript resources (portal)    

Popular Operating Systems' Support Sites: 

Microsoft  - for drivers & upgrades to XP, 2003, Vista or Windows 7.  
Windows is a monumental effort, immense in scope and popularity.  

Reminder: Join the MS Alliance ( ).  

Yes, it's continuously adapting, alive and operational, in several forms, some emulators.                    Modern support, extensions, and variation of DOS                 FreeDOS-32 32-bit DOS  (not a final release)                       DR DOS  is  an OpenDOS

8086 and DOS Emulation  (for older software support)
                 DOSBox is most supportive of  classic software        DOSBox is portable now!                Plex86 x86 emulation
                       Bochs  x86 emulation                  
                                   Powerful virtual machine, $$$ but download the free version
402-3199-48A3-AFA2-2DC0B40A73B6&displaylang=en                Virtual PC 2007 emulator
29d-dfa8-40bf-afaf-20bcb7f01cd1&DisplayLang=en                          Virtual PC 2004 emulator                                        Emulator
                                         Emulator in Java
                                    Emulator in Java                                            
Win95/98/ME  & 2000


General Linux sites:
                       Many distributions of Linux.                       Keep up with the many distributions of Linux.  

My favorite flavors of Linuxes:       Knoppix is a DVD-based live Linux  (no partitions or HD needed).       Ubuntu Linux is among the best.           Caldera Linux Home Page                      Classic, long ago...
                Red-Hat Linux Home (free d/l)    More nostalgia  ( I tip my fedora :) 

Slackware   (long, long ago)

SUN Solaris  (life after VAX/VMS )            SUN Solaris based Open Source Free Software
get KDE on Solaris;  checkout OpenSolaris.

SUN Alliance         SUN developer network members
                                                                                                 can get Studio 1 Compilers for free.   

    X-Windows -  Unix in the modern world                   Xming - free Xwindows for your PC.       
  To download Xming, to reduce load, check any of the alternate sites by Googling:   xming download 

Kenton Lee's X-Window System Sites
                            - UPS source level debugger for X Window for Linux & Unix    
                    MB edit for  X-Windows and more

Programming  (IDE's, Compilers, and Tools):  

The Programmers' Booklist                                 Programmers Free Resources       C++ Compilers               More Compilers and a List of Compiler-compilers          More Free Tools for Programmers
                 More Compilers and IDEs

Programming Editors:                               (excellent replacements for notepad)          Notepad++ is a powerful programmer's editors.        
               Tops (most powerful, portable, immense command-set), hundreds of programming languages.    Free prog. editor (lexical coloring & highly re-configurable)  
                Programmer’s Notepad (coloring & config and a portable version too)    Eclipse is a top-notch IDE for C++,Java,JavaScript,PHP,Mobile... 
To stay current, check:        
So far, Notepad++ is the best I have found.   Competition is always welcome.   

Web Page Editors:    Best WYSIWYG clean HTML 5 & CSS3 editor.  It replaces Kompozer
(below) which is now dated.  For HTML5 web pages and JavaScript game development, fly Blue Griffon.    (WYSIWYG clean HTML editor - avoids "mindless" automated-ML) (portable)   
                           Outstanding WYSIWYG HTML editor - Fun - Fast - Powerful - Easy                      Komodo Edit is Not WYSIWYG.  Supports:    
                                   HTML 5,JavaScript, Ruby w/Rails,  Python, Perl, Tcl, XML, & CSS 3.     
                                HTML-Kit is a fine Non-WYSIWYG editor for HTML, XML, JavaScript... 
         Alleycode is a fine WYSIWYG HTML editor.          
                             Eclipse is a top-notch IDE for C++, Java, JavaScript, PHP, Mobile...
MS Word also does WYSIWYG conversion but the ML code beneath is complex and hard to edit.    
To stay current, always check:,,        and   for the latest in HTML editors.     
To Test  PHP, Apache, MySQL..., go to:    and get wampserver (free).    
Wampserver is needed to test the server-side safely on your PC.  (Mandatory for Net-Centric courses).

Free Software Sites:       Apps here are Free and Portable (loadable from USB, CD, DVD...
       without administrator privilege, as critical need arises).  Big collection of tools to support study  and
       productivity.  Empowered students carry their apps with them, not just data.                    Portable is the way to go (pun unintended :)         
The Shareware & Freeware Kingdom!                
TUCOWS Shareware & Freeware Super-Sites           Not just free software but reviews and ratings.   
WUSTL Public Domain and Shareware Software Site   A classic source of PD software, freeware, SW...                       Free software, fonts, screen-savers...    CNET provides both reviews and many free apps (& TV show).                       Older versions for older OS's.

Besides the Microsoft and the SUN Alliances (mentioned earlier), consider IBM's Alliances at:          

Free Office Suites:     (Word Processing, Spreadsheets, Slide-show Presentation..)              Free Word Processing, Spreadsheets, Presentation (very compatible)  
                             Free Word Processing, Spreadsheets, Presentation (super suite of tools)
                         On-line Office Apps (free web-based office applications)             
              From our friends who made Gnome, the open graphics wonder.       IBM's Free Symphony Suite       Another free option (2006 version). It's portable too!      For a comprehensive current list (many free)                          

Free Graphics Software:           (Key term:  'cloning tool' AKA 'copying brush.)        Dia is a free and portable diagram editor (flowcharts, UML,...)       More Dia.            For more Dia shapes (get digital ones for digital logic)  
                GIMP is portable!  Power to go.      

For more graphics software, go to the CS461 syllabus and projects:

Free Video & Media Players, Capturers, & Editors:      E.M. Total Video Player  (Powerful, yet tiny)
      No need for any video codec. This supports 3gp, MP1-4, Mov, Flv & most video and audio formats
      (WMA, Ogg...) and DVDs, CD Audio and Swf Flash Files       StreamTransport records from video-streams.     Download video.                               AMR Player and converter.      

Free Email and Free Web Space

Free Web Space (for making  webpages for class) but has advertisements & usage rights release.    More about Webs, formerly Freewebs, & competitors., Homestead, Yola (formerly Synthasite), Jimdo, Weebly, uCoz, and Wix.

Free Email Accounts are available at:,,,, ad infinitum.
Use free email accounts when a project requires getting registered and you are asked for an email account. Since the third party will send junk email (spam), the free account will act as the sink
for the junk mail resultant thereof.  Your campus email can be kept for serious academics.   
To help decide in a comparison:        

For free language translation services on the web:  

Magazines on PC Hardware & Software Technology (Current Information):    Excellent (in-lab) product testing and evaluation.  Paper version is in the library.    Another magazine with useful online reviews and free downloads.          More magazine reviews & free downloads.                

For even more, consult:
In tribute to the departed:
Alas, the above makes no mention of  "PC Tech Journal", one of the finest in those days of yore.  

Other CS & Math Sites:     
Optical Illusions (web link contributed by magnificent Concetta Ward and her brilliantly insightful and caring 
students in their inquiry into the intricacies and sometimes amusingly anomalous interpretations of
visual perceptions by the mind.  Best of blessings to them in the hyperborean spendor of New Hampshire.)     Optical Illusions (web link contributed by Kristy, 
a  paragon mentor and her wonderful students.  To quote, "math rocks".  Best of prospects to them.)          The Stony Brook Algorithm Repository   Interesting CS puzzles, useful in creating programming projects.         Math Problems, Puzzles, and Topical Miscellany  (wonderful must-visit site)      EqWorld - The World of Math Equations  (purely focused on equations; great)
                 Puzzles, mind tests, paradoxes, and optical illusions    List of Physics Games                          Formalizing [some of the] Top 100 Theorems 
            Reference and directions for further exploration:     Cognitive Science articles (nice CS and AI section)                          TeX and LaTeX for PC's (portable version available)               LaTeX editor  (facilitates but not WYSIWYG)
Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry (great resources)

End of Transmission

The Missing Links    ("No! The found-link" - Curley Q. Link)

This is the last page of the Internet; your journey ends here.